RECOVERING MENTAL BALANCE
Learning to control
Thoughts can be both a source and a result of stress. Thinking about stressful events can create as much tension
as experiencing those events in the first place. Our mind seems drawn to stressful thinking as tension levels increase. Chapter
Four described how our brain works as a self-organizing system: patterns of perception are based on previous experience and
perception. Chapter Eight explained how our mind reacts to stress by narrowing our focus; how our thoughts influence our stress
and tension levels; and how the mental recycling of negative thoughts can send our stress levels spiraling. This chapter describes
approaches that help us to control our thinking by learning to let go of stressful thought patterns while finding ways to
bring resolution to our problems and a sense of ease to our thoughts and activities.
can drift into our mind at random when we are not focused. We can jump from one train of thought to another without realizing
where our mind has been or where it is taking us. The exercises in this chapter help us to make choices about how we think
and what we think about. The first step is to break up destructive patterns of thinking; the second is to learn to focus in
ways that help us to resolve our problems and accomplish our goals. Three techniques will be described. The first, which I
call "Thought Focusing," provides a way to let go of harmful thought patterns. The second technique, Meditation,
helps us develop and enhance the skill of letting go of unwanted thoughts while learning to focus where we choose. The third
technique, which I simply call "Clarifying," helps us to move away from unhealthy thinking and to focus on solving
the problems that we are facing. Using each of these techniques enhances our ability to successfully incorporate the others
into an overall strategy for recovering and maintaining mental balance.
Focusing provides a way out of the mental recycling of negative thoughts that often follows stressful events. Long after the
incident has passed, we persist in repeating thoughts such as "How could he do that to me? ... What right does she have
to say that? ... Who does he think he is? ... Why does everything happen to me? etc." These thoughts continue to create
tension and increase our stress levels, yet they contribute nothing to solving our problems. Trying to push these thoughts
out of our minds sounds easy but never seems to work. We might stop thinking about them for a few seconds, but the thoughts
return again and again.
It is helpful to recall the metaphor used in Chapter Four which
compares our brain to a sandy hill and thought patterns to the little rivers that are formed as water runs down the hill.
The trenches become deeper as more water runs down the hill. New water is more likely to run down the deeper trenches. Repeated
thoughts create connections in our brain which make it more likely that those thoughts will be repeated again. Thought Focusing
creates "another river" on the sandy hill that is our brain. Deepening this "river" over time makes it
easier for new thoughts to go in that direction.
Thought Focusing is an adaptation of a
practice called "The Active Prayer Sentence," which is described by Thomas Keating in "Invitation to Love"
(Element Books Ltd., 1992 p 133). It involves choosing a phrase, six to twelve syllables in length, that has a particular
meaning for you. It can be a short prayer, a quotation from Scripture, part of a poem, or any saying that brings you a sense
of peace and hope. I have found that the length does make a difference. When observing clients practice this technique, I
notice that their breathing doesn't have as smooth or easy a rhythm with phrases shorter than 6 or longer than 12 syllables.
Examples of phrases that I have used include: "Love is patient, love is kind"; "Guide our feet in the
path of peace"; "Rooted and grounded in love"; "Oh God come to my assistance"; and "Only in
God is my soul at rest." It is helpful to take some time to choose a phrase that has particular meaning to you and that
fits the situation at hand. I use eight to ten different phrases to fit different kinds of stressors that I experience.
Once you have chosen a phrase, start to repeat it whenever you have mental "down time" - while
driving, taking a shower, going for a walk, waiting in line, doing household chores, etc. Repeating the phrase brings a sense
of peace to these activities but, more important, it establishes a deeper set of connections (or "rivers") in our
minds. Starting to recite our phrase as soon as we realize that we are recycling disruptive thoughts allows us to let go of
negative thoughts and regain our peace of mind.
Most people report that they are able to
successfully replace negative thinking with their chosen phrases after less than a week of practice. It can be particularly
helpful to use Thought Focusing when stressful thoughts interfere with our sleep. It is also beneficial to link repetition
of the phrase with diaphragmatic breathing whenever possible. Simply repeat the first half of the phrase during the inhale
and the second half during the exhale. This can only be done when we are at rest, since it is not possible to breathe diaphragmatically
when we are physically active.
What is meditation?
Meditation is a discipline that has been
practiced for thousands of years. A considerable amount of research in the 1970's confirmed that it reduces muscle tension,
lowers blood pressure, and stimulates brain waves associated with deep states of relaxation. People who practice meditation
regularly report that they feel calmer, more rested, more peaceful. These are good reasons to consider learning to meditate.
However, I have found that meditation can serve an even more useful purpose: it helps us develop the skill of letting go of
distracting thoughts and learning to shift or maintain focus where we choose.
Meditation is rather like shifting our
mind into neutral. This can be very relaxing, since our mind often thinks about things that create tension. In some ways,
our mind is like a radio that we can't shut off - it is always thinking about or commenting on something. Putting our
thoughts on hold allows our body to relax and take care of itself.
bringing our attention to one single thought. When we are able to maintain this focus, we experience an increased sense of
calm, peace, and relaxation. However, sooner or later, we will be distracted. We realize that we are thinking about something
else. That is where the mental-skill-building aspect of meditation comes into play. When we realize that our mind has wandered
during meditation, we shouldn't try to work harder and force our concentration. We simply allow the distracting thought
to pass and gently return our focus to the single thought. This can happen dozens or even hundreds of times during each meditation
session. Meditation trains our mind and our brain to let go of certain thought patterns and return our focus where we choose.
I personally have found this to be an invaluable skill not only in managing and preventing stress but also
in problem solving and communicating with others. The regular practice of meditation teaches us to suspend one way of thinking
and look at a person or situation in new ways. It helps us learn to let go of our thoughts and listen more fully to what others
are saying. I learned this during a particularly high-stress time in my life. Since I had been meditating for a number of
years, it had become part of my daily routine. I continued meditating during this difficult time, but experienced constant
distractions during my regular meditation. I found that after a short while, my ability to control the focus of my thoughts
in my work and while under stress had significantly improved. My meditations during this time were not particularly peaceful
or satisfying, but they accomplished for me what I needed at the time. From that experience, I came to believe that meditation
puts us in a state where we get what we need. If we need peace and relaxation, that's what we get. If we need sleep, we
tend to fall asleep. If we need improved focus and mental flexibility, that's also what we get.
That means there is no such thing as a "bad" or unproductive meditation. If we stay with our focus, we
feel relaxed and refreshed. If we have lots of distractions, we get lots of practice in letting go of unwanted thoughts and
choosing our focus. In most sessions, we get a bit of both. I think of meditation as a process of developing and fine-tuning
a skill. The key is regular practice. A professional basketball player will shoot many thousands of baskets before making
it to the pros. If a player stops practicing for a while, she will get "rusty" and need work to bring back the earlier
Meditation becomes most effective when practiced on a regular basis. I've
been practicing this for almost thirty years (as of December 2000) and when I skip a day, it is almost like the mental equivalent
of not brushing my teeth. My thinking is just not as clear or astute as when I meditate daily. I find that I am even more
creative and productive on days when I am able to meditate two or three times. Meditating more than three times per day does
not seem to make any difference.
When to meditate
It is most helpful to find a regular time
when you can meditate every day. The ideal would be to practice three times per day for twenty minutes to half an hour. This
is not realistic for most people. It is more important to meditate regularly than to meditate for long periods of time. Practicing
five minutes once per day will be helpful. Ten minutes will be much more helpful and twenty or thirty minutes is significantly
more helpful than that. There is not much evidence of benefit in terms of mental skill building beyond thirty minutes. Likewise,
once per day is helpful, yet twice or three times are even more helpful. Again, practicing more than three times per day does
not seem to bring much additional benefit. The important thing is to work out a regular routine that can work with your schedule
and commitments. You may decide to increase the time once you begin to experience the benefits. The key, however, is regular
It is generally not helpful to meditate right after eating. I am not sure of the rationale behind this, but
it has been suggested by a number of meditation instructors from a range of disciplines. I have found it more difficult to
stay with the meditation after a meal. Possibly the digestive process interferes with meditating in some way. It is also not
a good idea to meditate right before bedtime. Meditation actually tends to wake us up a bit and can interfere with sleep.
If I become sleepy while driving, I often pull off to a rest area and meditate for a few minutes. This usually wakes me up
enough to finish the trip.
Types of meditation
There are many different forms of meditation.
Most religions and martial arts disciplines teach forms of meditation. Some people have tried to make up their own meditations,
but I have found these to be less effective than techniques that have stood the test of time. If you are using a form of meditation
that was learned from a well-trained, experienced instructor, I would encourage you to continue that. Changing your meditation
technique tends to interfere with the learning process, and I would suggest not altering your meditation practice without
good reason. I will present two options for meditation in this book. One is a secular version that comes from Yoga, the other
is a form of Christian prayer, called Centering Prayer that has been practiced for over 1800 years.
How to meditate
Steps for Meditating
1. Sit in a relaxed position with your back supported and your feet
on the floor.
2. Begin practicing diaphragmatic breathing; once an easy rhythm is established, close your eyes.
Focus your attention at the tip our your nose. Let your mind rest on the sensation of the coolness of the inhale and warmth
of the exhale.
4. If you are distracted by sounds, thoughts, or anything else, simply let
the distraction pass and gently return your focus to your breathing along with the coolness of the inhale and the warmth of
5. Began repeating your chosen sound as you breathe. For a non-religious meditation, repeat "so"
as you inhale and "hum" as you exhale. To integrate Christian prayer into your meditation, repeat the name "Jesus,"
first syllable on the inhale, second syllable on the exhale.
6. Once again if you are distracted
by sounds, thoughts, or anything else, simply let the distraction pass and gently return your focus to your breathing while
repeating the sound you have chosen. It is helpful to follow a set routine when learning to meditate. Following the same steps
each time makes it easier to settle into the process. Setting aside a regular time and place for meditation helps us to be
oriented and prepared for the practice. Sitting upright in a relaxed position with our feet on the floor is the best position
for meditation. Since meditation is done with our eyes closed, it is too easy to fall asleep if we meditate lying down and
too difficult to fully relax if we are standing. I find it helpful to begin the meditation with diaphragmatic breathing and
then use a technique that helps to focus our attention. Paying attention to the sensation of our breath at the tip our nose
serves this function. You will notice that your breath feels cooler as you inhale and warmer as you exhale. Focusing on that
physical sensation helps to ease us into the meditation process. The final step for these meditations is to silently repeat
a sound with each inhale and exhale. If you want to practice the secular yoga meditation, use the sound "so" on
the inhale and "hum" on the exhale. These are Sanskrit words that mean "this" and "that." To
incorporate the Christian Centering Prayer into your meditation, simply repeat the name "Jesus" with each breath.
Silently say the first syllable with the inhale and the second syllable with the exhale. Continue repeating the sound until
the time you have set aside for meditating has passed. (You can either set a timer or simply check your watch or a clock to
see when you are finished.) When distractions come into your mind, simply let them pass and very gently return your focus
to your breathing and repeating the sound. Do not try to force your concentration. Remember that distractions are a natural
occurrence and not an indication that you are doing anything wrong.
If we picture
our thoughts as a line on a piece of paper, high stress turns straight lines into circles and scribbles. Stress seems either
to drive our thoughts over and over the same issues or to bounce them from problem to problem. Nothing gets resolved, and
we feel increasingly worn out and frazzled. "Clarifying" is a method of straightening out our thoughts by focusing
them in a productive direction. It is also one of the three principles of stress management that will be described in much
more detail in Chapter Sixteen.
A lot of our stressful ruminating takes the form of questions: "What happens if
I lose my job? What if I can't pay that bill? What if we don't make it on time?" Clarifying involves answering
these questions and asking others that help us get a clearer picture of our priorities and options. A student described an
incident where he was running late for work. He was becoming more and more agitated as new obstacles (some resulting of his
tension level) made him even later. He described the following process as he was driving to work: "I started doing the
diaphragmatic breathing and settled down a bit. When I got stuck in traffic I realized there was nothing I could do to get
there faster and decided to try to clarify my thinking. What would happen if I was late? Well, if I tried to sneak in and
pretend I was there on time, I could get caught and my boss would be really mad. If I simply came in and told her I was late,
she would be less upset. Actually, I am hardly ever late. I got to work, went to my boss's office, and apologized for
being late. She looked up and said ‘no problem" and didn't give it a second thought. I started working and
had a really good day. Later on, my boss came up and told me she appreciated my honesty."
involves asking and answering good questions. It straightens out our mental circles and scribbles and takes them in a positive
direction. It helps us accept what we can't change, see what choices we have, and realize what is most important. We can
create a lot of stress worrying about things that never happen. If they do happen, the worrying has created extra tension
that often makes them worse. Clarifying helps prepare us for the worst-case scenario. It turns worrying into problem-solving.
There is no tension when our mind is focused on dealing with a single issue. Tension builds when we recycle stressors or split
our focus. Clarifying prevents the build-up of tension and helps us see the path that works best for us.
Stressful thinking can also involve going over and over past hurts or injustices. Clarifying in these situations
can either help us find resolution or lead us to other techniques that can untangle our thinking. One example was a client
who was deeply distressed by an injustice and couldn't sleep because she kept going over and over it in her mind. Clarifying
helped her step back from her gnarled thoughts and recognize there was nothing she could do about the situation while lying
in bed trying to sleep. She said: "I told myself that thinking this was just making me more upset and then started using
my thought-focusing phrase along with the (diaphragmatic) breathing. I fell asleep and didn't wake up until the alarm
We further clarified the situation that had kept her awake by asking "What
could you have done differently?" She said she wouldn't have done anything differently; her actions had interfered
with someone else's political ambitions and they had taken steps to reduce her effectiveness. Other questions followed:
"How important was the stand you took? What are the long-term consequences of what happened? What can be done to correct
the situation after the fact? What would it cost in terms of time and effort? What is the likelihood you would succeed?"
Answering these questions and asking other related questions helped her to reach a decision. Once the decision was made, she
was able to stop ruminating and carry out her plan.
Clarifying frees us from mental entanglement
by separating issues and looking at them one at a time. It not only stops the build-up of tension from mental stress but re-directs
our focus in ways that lead to acceptance and resolution of our difficulties.